Sort Files By Size (In The Terminal)

In today’s article, we’re going to cover something nice and simple; how to sort files by size in the terminal. This is something everyone should know, because sorting files is often a prerequisite to understanding and managing said files.

Besides, not all the articles have to be something complicated. The tagline for Linux-Tips is “Getting you up to speed!” It’s supposed to be aimed squarely at new Linux users. The problem is, many of those articles are boring to write and the 2nd largest group of readers aren’t really beginners. 

So, yeah…

Today, we’ll have a nice, basic article that tells you how to sort files by size – in the terminal. In fact, some of the more regular users may not have these commands memorized. Now’s a good time to learn ’em.

We’ll be using the ‘ls’ command for this. It is said that you shouldn’t parse the output of ‘ls’ for anything important. It’s bad practice for reasons I think I’ve touched on before. However, you can safely use ‘ls’ for this process as it’s just sorting the files by size and doing so by itself.

For those that don’t know, ‘ls’ has a ton of options. It’s a tool used to show the contents of a directory. You can use man ls to get more information about the command. We’ve previously covered:

Let’s Use ‘ls’ To Sort Files By Time

Well, today we’ll use ‘ls’ to …

Sort Files By Size:

This article requires an open terminal, like many other articles on this site. If you don’t know how to open the terminal, you can do so with your keyboard – just press CTRL + ALT + T and your default terminal should open.

You might just as well stay right there in your default location – which should be your home directory. Feel free to switch to a new directory, but you really won’t need to. It’s an easy command. 

First, we’ll show the output sorted to show the largest files first:

Of course, you can reverse that sort order and show the smallest files first. To do that, you just add -r (reverse) to your flags, like so:

That command should show you files listed with the smallest ones first and that’s really all there is to this article. Well, there’s the closure section – but nobody reads those.


And, well, this particular closure section won’t have anything truly interesting or different in it. After all, this is just a simple article that shows you how to sort files by size. ‘Snot that much more to it. ‘Snot that much more that I can add.

Thanks for reading! If you want to help, or if the site has helped you, you can donate, register to help, write an article, or buy inexpensive hosting to start your own site. If you scroll down, you can sign up for the newsletter, vote for the article, and comment.

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Meta: I Should Have Numbered These

It’s time for another meta article. These are just articles where I take a bit of a break and write about the site itself. Some of them have been a little tough to write, but this one promises to be pretty darned easy. (I try to avoid swearing on the site, but sometimes I notice I did when I get to the editing phase. In real life, I swear like a trooper, depending on the company I keep.)

You won’t learn anything major from this article, and none of what you learn will be about Linux! You have been warned!

Well, I haven’t written the article yet – but that stands to reason! I don’t plan on writing anything even remotely educational in this article. I won’t even have to use the code blocks for anything – and you won’t even need to open a terminal! That’s right, it’s an article where you do not have to crack open your terminal. (I cut and paste that instructional ext, mixing it up a little from time to time.)

So, well, I do kinda wish I’d started these meta articles off by numbering them. Then I could kinda keep track of how many I’ve written. I suppose I could still filter it and figure that out. Lemme check…

I’ve used the meta tag for some pretty silly stuff – perhaps by accident. This would be like the 8th one that’s really about the site itself. Maybe I’ll remember to call the next one “#9”. There are a couple of other ‘meta’ articles where I’m not quite sure why I used the tag or title. Ah well… It was probably wine.

The State Of Linux-Tips #8:

So, not that long ago there was an article that I posted without disclosing any details. Let’s just say lessons have been learned. I think even Google noticed, ’cause my traffic hasn’t really grown any since the last time I wrote one of these.

In fact, pretty much all the same data from the last one would apply to this one. In a few areas, my traffic actually decreased a little – not much, but a little. The gains made with keywords like ‘apt purge‘ ranking pretty high seem to be countered by fewer clicks on the other articles.

Basically, it’s a wash… I think Google punished me for about a month, because traffic seems to be increasing again. You can help with that, you know. Share the articles on your favorite social media sites and that’ll help a great deal – more than donating or unblocking ads.

Speaking of ads, I got some money from AdSense and I see no reason to suspect the bills won’t get paid. Well, they’re gonna get paid regardless. So, there’s that, which is nice! 

Literally, the same popular content from last time is the same popular content from this time. It’s almost as if Google put me into stasis, or something. So, I do believe I’ve learned a lesson regarding publishing content from other people with different objectives.

Speaking of which, you can also help by writing an article. I’ll clean it up and make it suitable for publication, including formatting and digging for links as needed. That’d be great. It’s summer and I’m pressed for time. So, that’d really help. You might want to make sure that it’s not something I’ve already covered! We’ve got a ton of content already.


That’s it, really! I just wanted to touch base with an easy meta article. Normally, they’re a bit more complicated than this. This time, nothing major has changed. Even my drop in traffic is closer to just staying the same and not increasing in traffic as I have been. It’s down like 1.3% – or pretty much a rounding error. However, the site has been experiencing linear growth – which, mixed with other numbers, makes me think we won’t be seeing a repeat of the article shared a month or so ago.

Thanks for reading! If you want to help, or if the site has helped you, you can donate, register to help, write an article, or buy inexpensive hosting to start your own site. If you scroll down, you can sign up for the newsletter, vote for the article, and comment.

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How To: Create A New User

Today’s article is a nice and easy one, where you’ll learn how to create a new user. It’s a skill everyone should have and it’s really not all that difficult. It’s a pretty basic skill, after all. Either way, it shouldn’t be all that long, nor all that difficult.

In fact, I’ve previously covered some of this. Oddly, I’ve covered the more difficult stuff first. I’ve covered how to create a new user without a /home directory. I’ve also covered create a new user with sudo privileges. Oddly, I’ve never covered how to just plain create a new user. So, that’s what this article will explain.

The tool we’ll be using in this article is one you’ve used before, assuming you’ve been following the site. We’ll be using ‘adduser’ which the man page helpfully describes as:

adduser, addgroup – add a user or group to the system

As a tool, it does what it says on the tin. You can see that it’s also covering the ‘addgroup’ command. We won’t be covering that today, but it’s probably pretty obvious what it does. Hint: It is used to add groups! 

Alas, we’ll just be using the ‘adduser’ bit, in this pretty simple article to follow. Anyhow, you never know when you’ll want to create a new user and Linux is very much a multi-user operating system – even if you don’t realize it. Between users and groups, you can do some pretty fancy stuff with permissions.

Create A New User:

This article requires an open terminal, like oh so many do. To crack open a terminal, just press CTRL + ALT + T and your default terminal should open. See? It’s magic!

Now, with your terminal open, you can create a new user with:

Next, you’ll be asked for a password. Don’t be fooled, they want your root/sudo password and not the intended password for the new user. That will come later, after the user is created. The application will tell you what it’s doing, such as creating the new user, creating the new user’s home directory, and copying the default files to the new user’s home directory.

After it’s done with that, it’ll ask you for some finishing information. You’ll be asked to type the password. That’s when you enter the password for the new user. You’ll be asked to confirm it to make sure you typed it properly. It’ll then confirm that it has set the password, ‘adduser’ is helpful like that.

At this point,  you can opt to include more information. None of this is required information and you can leave the fields blank. But, if you want, you can fill the fields for things like the new user’s real name, their phone number(s), and even what room they are in.

Given that most of my readers are home users, you’re probably not going to need to add that information. Either way, when you’re done with that you will need to confirm the information. This is obvious, but you enter Y to confirm the data, or N to go back and edit something. When you finish that, you will have a new user account that you can use immediately.


There you have it. You now have a new article. This one will have taught you how to create a new user. As I’ve mentioned, Linux is a multi-user operating system by design and, as such, you’ll eventually need to know how to create a new user. And… When that happens… You’ll either remember – or you’ll be able to search for the answer! We’ve got well over 200 articles, so we’ve covered a lot of subjects.

Thanks for reading! If you want to help, or if the site has helped you, you can donate, register to help, write an article, or buy inexpensive hosting to start your own site. If you scroll down, you can sign up for the newsletter, vote for the article, and comment.

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Let’s Zip A Directory In The Linux Terminal

Today, we’re going to zip a directory in the Linux terminal. This isn’t a very complicated task, but it’s worth covering. It’s also not something you’re likely to do every day, but it’s bound to be useful to some of you. You’re eventually going to want to share a directory’s worth of files with someone!

Why zip a directory? This is Linux, we deal with .tar.gz!

Well, in the real world, you might just want to share files with other people. They’ll have no idea what to do with a .tar.gz file – but they’ll know exactly what to do with a .zip file.

More importantly, pretty much every operating system on the planet can open a .zip file. Even way back with the Amiga and Atari systems, you were able  to open .zip files.

As an added bonus, you probably already have the utility to compress files into .zip files and won’t need to install anything! So, you won’t need to install anything and you’ll be able to share the resulting files with pretty much anyone on the planet. What’s not to love?

Heck, you don’t even need to install an application on Windows or MacOS to open .zip files. As a quick test, I can even open them with a file management application on Android. I’m not sure if Android also deals with them by default or if it’s a function of the file manager. Still, you can open .zip files just fine on Android.

With all those great things, you might just as well learn how to zip a directory in the Linux terminal. I promise, it’s really easy.

Zip A Directory:

This article requires an open terminal, like many other articles on this site. If you don’t know how to open the terminal, you can do so with your keyboard – just press CTRL + ALT + T and your default terminal should open.

Chances are very good that you won’t have to install ‘zip’ to get this to work. You can find out quickly enough by just typing:

That’ll likely tell you which zip and where it’s located. If not, you’ll need to install it from your default repositories. I expect very few people will need to do that.

Now to zip a directory…

You can also zip a directory recursively, by using the ‘r’ flag:

This is not to be confused with the R flag, which will recursively compress the files in the folder – but only those files that were specified, such as from this example command in the man page:

That’d take all the files in the current directory that ended in ‘.c’ and compress them into a file called foo. That’s not really what we’re after, nor is it what the article is about. Either way, while you’re exploring, be sure to check the man page. This is one of the biggest man pages you’ll likely come across and there are a ton of options beyond just simply letting you zip a directory.


There you have it. You can now zip a directory – such as a directory of pictures to share with your loved ones who are still not using Linux. It’s not terribly difficult, but it’s a useful skill to have and you never know when you’ll want to share a bunch of files with other people.

Thanks for reading! If you want to help, or if the site has helped you, you can donate, register to help, write an article, or buy inexpensive hosting to start your own site. If you scroll down, you can sign up for the newsletter, vote for the article, and comment.

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macOS vs Linux: Comparative Analysis

macOS vs Linux: Comparative Analysis


BSD code is the base of macOS, which is developed under the banner of Apple Incorporation. The Unix-based operating system is developed with the use of languages like C, C++, etc. In 2001, the first version of macOS was introduced. This OS is in the second position in the world to be used highly on computers.

Linux is independently developed with a system similar to Unix. The systems where Linux plays a crucial role are named mobile devices, cloud computing, servers, personal computers, supercomputers, etc. In 1991, the first version of Linux was introduced to the world.

Linux can be easily downloaded and used. In comparison to Linux, Windows is high in demand and not available for free. macOS is picked up by specific users who can spend a specific amount from their pocket because it is designed by Apple and costs too much. Even though it is not affordable for all Windows users.

Both of these systems are not compatible with binary codes. The applications based on macOS cannot be used like open sources.

To know more about the differences and similarities of these operating systems, please have a look over the listed headings underneath. The doubts that can annoy you when deciding Mac vs. Linux are going to be sorted in the sections mentioned underneath.

Is it good to use macOS and Linux together?

People who have used Linux for years and are now using Apple’s Mac think MacOS is good to go. If you are a Mac user, you can use Mac OS X. To fulfill all your needs with Linux; you need to get another computer. You can look for a cheaper choice where Linux will work.

Is it possible to switch to macOS from Linux?

Yes, it is easy. You need to take care while doing this so that you can avoid data loss or damage. The entire process of macOS installation should be done properly, along with a recovery partition.

 Which is safer – Linux or macOS?

For a few reasons, Linux is considered safe in comparison to Windows and macOS. But, still, there are some flaws and exploits due to which Linux does not stand at the top.

The use of these operating systems depends upon the needs of the user and his/her preferences. If we talk about higher usage of the OS, then it’s only Windows.

Is It possible to install Linux on an old iMac?

Installing Linux into the old iMac computer is not an issue. For this task, you don’t need to take tension as you do not need to use any specific Mac Distro. Any of the distros can be downloaded and installed. a 64-bit distro will be a better choice to make the Old iMac be used with Linux.

If you are not able to download Linux, there might be a problem with your internet connection. Check out to resolve the error.

 Which version of Linux is good to use with macOS?

The free versions of Linux to be used with Mac are — Linux Mint, Fedora, and ArcoLinux. Linux, which is easily accessible to anyone, was created by Linus Torvalds and owned by many authors (as they worked over source codes) with the GPLv2 license.

Drawbacks of Linux OS 

  • No standard environment for the desktop usage
  • No way of proper single presentation for packaging software
  • No proper and good support for games
  • Rare availability of desktop software

Downsides of macOS 

  • Mac does not allow to perform required customization
  • The gaming experiences of Mac users are not good to the date
  • The creation of new files becomes an issue on Mac devices
  • The macOS does not allow to make a jump list like Windows

Is there an issue if Linux dual-boot is being performed on a Mac device?

With Boot Camp, the process of Windows installation is easy on the Mac system. But, this process is not good to go if you want to do this for Linux. It is a tough task to be performed. If you still want to do this, you need to try it with the use of a USB or CD drive.

Why should you go for Linux in comparison to Mac?

Linux is a safer choice in comparison to Windows and Mac. With this OS, you can simply keep the malware and viruses away. The security codes and aspects involved in Linux are helpful in keeping your computer safe. Still, if you want to be more protected, then ClamAV antivirus can be used with Linux.

macOS has always had a specific clientele who love to play games flawlessly, and Linux is being loved by users who are set to program & develop formulas and codes. Choosing any of these OS is not easy, but priorities and specifications can help you to make the right decision.

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